Obstetrics and Gynaecology

During and later stages of pregnancy

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Obstetrics and Gynaecology

In medicine, the department which looks after the female reproductive organs is called the Obs and Gynae department. Obstetrics and Gynaecology is split into two disciplines and each look after separate areas medically but there are also crossovers. For example, during pregnancy, in the early part you may be seen by a gynaecologist whilst in the later stages you may be seen by an obstetrician.

During pregnancy, you may be assigned a midwife (if your pregnancy is classed as low risk) or you may be assigned an Obstetrician if your pregnancy is classed as high risk. On occasion you may have a multi-disciplinary team which includes both a midwife and an obstetrician.

 Gynaecologists look after conditions such as:

Pelvic inflammatory disease

PID for short, it is an infection within the upper genital tract and can affect the womb, fallopian tubes and ovaries. Whilst easily treat with antibiotics, if left un-treat, it can cause more serious problems such as ectopic pregnancies and in 10% of sufferers, infertility.


Affects the tissue medically called the endometrium. This tissue is found inside the stomach, bladder or bowel as well as the womb. Most commonly this condition affects pre-menopausal women and symptoms include heavy periods, period pain, pelvic pain and pain during and after intercourse.


Read more about cancer in our specific pages which can be found here.

Ovarian cysts

A common condition which naturally disappears within a few months, ovarian cysts are fluid filled sacs found on a woman’s ovaries. Surgical removal may be required if the cysts become large or are have a potential to become cancerous. In some instances ovarian cysts where surgery is required to remove them necessitate the removal of the overies.

Uterine fibroids

Develop in or around the uterus and consist of fibrous tissue and muscle. They do not display any symptoms. If fibroids develop during pregnancy, they can cause issues with the baby’s development or birth difficulties. If fibroids are large, they may cause infertility because the egg may be prevented sticking to the womb lining.

Urinary tract infections

A common condition caused by bacteria in the digestive tract being passed during urination to the urethra. Recurrent UTIs may cause permanent kidney damage or kidney infections. In severe cases it may cause a life threatening condition called sepsis.

Uterine prolapse

Is also known as pelvic organ prolapse and involves the uterus, vagina, bowel or bladder. When a prolapse occurs the sufferer may feel a bulge coming down into or out of the vagina and is caused by tissue weakening.


Sexually transmitted diseases are common and are caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites passed during sexual intercourse. Some STDs may cause significant complications including infertility if left un-treat.


Is a condition suffered by women of all ages and can be a long-term problem which affects the area around the vulva. Sufferers report a burning, stinging or sore sensation which is made worse during intercourse or using feminine hygiene products. It is thought that this condition may be as a result of problems with nerves


Inflamation in the intimate area along with a discharge that is strong smelling is called vaginitis. It is commonly caused by STIs but can also be caused by thrush or an imbalance of the normal bacteria within the vagina.


The muscles surrounding the vagina tighten involuntarily when penetration is attempted. Some of the causes of this condition include damage during childbirth such as episiotomies or vulvodynia.

Obstetricians carry out procedures such during labour and after the birth of the baby.

Your obstetrician or midwife should examine your weight and height early in the pregnancy to ensure that the mum is not underweight or overweight as either may increase the risk of complications during pregnancy. They will also assess the growth of the baby by using a tape measure.

Blood pressure should be checked on a regular basis as well as testing the mum’s urine. This will help screen out conditions such as pre-eclampsia. The healthcare professional will be looking for protein, sugar or bacteria. Blood tests checking for conditions such as anaemia, rubella, diabetes and infections are also performed.

On obstetrician will perform an ultrasound if you are a high risk patient and this is to determine your due date and also to check the baby for potential problems.

You may be offered screening for Down’s syndrome but it is your choice whether to have the tests performed. An obstetrician will also examine you to determine the position of the baby at 36 weeks of pregnancy.

Once in labour an obstetrician may see you to perform a caesarean section or an episiotomy if either are required. They may also assist with the birth of your baby if there is a need for forceps or vacuum (ventous) tools to be used. If you need an episiotomy, the obstetrician may be on hand to stitch up the episiotomy.

Obstetric and Gynaecology negligence

Clinical negligence claims are commonly brought when testing has not been completed or performed incorrectly and where that act causes injuries to either the mum or the baby.

If the patient is recognised to be a high risk pregnancy and testing for infections has not been performed, it could cause serious medical complications for both the mum and baby.

How do we help?

Here at Negligence Claimline our friendly team are here to help you get the support you need. Working with a panel of specialist medical negligence solicitors, we can assist you with your potential claim for medical negligence.

Sometimes an apology is enough, but in other cases compensation will be the only solution to help you get your life back on track.

Our service, putting you in contact with one of our expert panel members, is free and you are not obliged to take the advice the solicitor gives you, or to progress your claim any further if you do not wish.

Can I sue the NHS?

The NHS was created so that good healthcare should be available to all, and it is one of the country’s proudest achievements. However, if something goes wrong during your treatment you deserve answers and, where necessary, financial compensation.

We do not treat your claim lightly. However, the treatment you consider negligent must be considered unreasonable, irresponsible, and harmful.

When someone suffers an injury that impacts their life, or that of a loved one, then it is vital that the NHS has the procedures in place to both compensate the patient and learn from their mistakes.

Find out more about negligence in our Advice Centre

Call Us

If you believe that you, or a loved one, have suffered an injury as a result of medical or clinical negligence then call our friendly team on 0330 355 9210* where they will take some details and pass them to a team of specialist solicitors.